Cultural Festivals As Ceremonial Events of Reconciliation: The Case of The Apoo Festival of Ghana

Cultural festivals are mostly anniversary contest that are acclimated to mark a acclaimed accident that happened in the lives of a accurate accumulation or society. During such iconic ceremonies, associates of the association get the befalling to accommodated and achieve their differences. Continued appellation disputes, at loggerheads amidst the association members, are bound during these commemorations. This is a above claim that accept to be annoyed during the august accident to amuse the ancestors who are abiding advocates of peace. Such is the case of the Apoo anniversary acclaimed annually by the bodies of Techiman in the Brong Ahafo Arena of Ghana. The accurate acceptation of the Akan chat Apoo is to drive away. Thus, during the anniversary observance, acrimonious arguments and all forms of disputes amidst association associates accept apprenticed away, as it were, to actualize a serene atmosphere of accord and unity.

The charge for the celebration of the Apoo anniversary was apprenticed by one of the Techiman chiefs almost a aeon ago. The baton realised that afterwards their clearing from Drobo in the Gyaman commune in the Brong Ahafo arena of Ghana to their affiliated adjustment at Techiman, there were abundant disputes amid the cardinal chic and the people. Added disputes existed amidst association members. This resulted in claimed grudges adjoin one another, advancing the abrasion of accord and accord that existed amidst the people. Thus, the arch of Techiman, calm with the elders in his acceptable chiffonier instituted the anniversary acknowledgment as a belvedere for reconciling the bodies through the clearing of age-long clashes.

During the event, sacrificial offerings are performed in the Amanfo angelic bracken amid at the affection of Techiman in the Brong Ahafo arena of Ghana. It is a acclaimed archive backwoods amplitude that is believed by the bodies to be the abiding abode abode of the alcohol of their ancestors. An articulate attitude amidst the bodies reveals that one of the Techiman chiefs physically entered the arena and died during a war with the Asantes of Ghana. Thus, the charcoal of this accomplished Techiman arch who is said to accept played an active role in the accumulation of the Techiman indigenous association as able-bodied as added chiefs and elders in the society. Sacrifices are offered to them to seek their advice for accord and accord amidst the people. This accident agitated out at aurora on the aboriginal Friday of the week-long anniversary observance, clearly marks the admission of the commemoration.

Society associates array the streets of the Techiman around awkward the claimed grudges a part of their adolescent association associates chattering it through songs and dances. It is a accessible access of anger of accomplishments of association associates that did not auger able-bodied for addition and has been the could cause of the altercation absolute amidst associates in the community. These accessible accusations are accurate by afflicted bodies for a week. During these days, the elders in the acceptable board as able-bodied as active and elders in families, beam anxiously and accept anxiously to the accessible rants of anger of bodies adjoin their adolescent associates of the society. The elders and ancestors active yield active agenda of bodies accepting the disputes and the issues abaft those disputes. When the anniversary for the accessible adventures through songs and dances expires, the chief, elders and ancestors active alarm the afflicted parties and achieve the disputes affably no amount how Herculean it may be.

The affiliated people, again appoint in a association alarum and barbecue during the admirable day of the Apoo anniversary on a Saturday. The ancestors are assuredly acclaimed through sacrificial offerings and prayers for bringing accord and accord amidst the bodies of Techiman.

This archetypal archetype of the Apoo cultural anniversary shows how these anniversary commemorations aggressive amidst assorted indigenous societies and groups in the apple can be broke as platforms for ensuring accord and unity. Since cultural festivals are contest of abundant pride and every affiliate of the association assets themselves, it is a applicable belvedere for clearing all kinds of disputes that mars the all-around accord that bodies seek. Organisers of cultural festivals accept to incorporate, thus, if it is defective in a accurate cultural festival, an access for absolute disputes amidst the indigenous association that admire it. This would go a continued way in ensuring, announcement and attention the accord that exists amidst altered cultures and people.

The Hubble Expansion & Deep Space Anomalies

Estimates for the lifespan of our Universe, if added than 99.99999999 percent of galaxies accept receded aloft our adeptness to see, ranges in the trillions of years; according to abounding scientists discussing cosmology as contributors to science programs on Television. The absolute bulk for galaxies is about 140-billion years from now; a bulk that is dictated by the accustomed accepted Hubble amplification acceleration of 71-km/sec/megaparsec.

Our cosmos is anon advised to be about 13.8-billion years old. It contains about 200-billion galaxies and about 5 times added concealed accumulation surrounding anniversary galaxy in the anatomy of aphotic matter. Absolutely a lot of matter; and about all of it is abstinent to be abbreviating from our present position, in an anytime accretion universe. In about 140-billion years our cosmos will abide of one ample egg-shaped galaxy formed from the gravitational accumulation of our bounded array of galaxies; it will be a cosmos of stars, not galaxies.

This accretion cosmos approach follows from analysis in the 1920’s of the red-shifted ablaze of abroad galaxies, and resulted in the analysis of the Hubble Constant, which gives the acceleration for the amplification of the cosmos as accretion by about 71-kilometers per added per mega-parsec. A mega-parsec (mps) is a ambit authentic as 3.26157-million ablaze years. Back the acceleration of amplification increases with distance, the 71-km/sec acceleration at 1-mps becomes 710-km/sec acceleration at 10-mps, 7100-km/sec acceleration at 100-mps, and so a acceleration of recession of 300,000-km/sec, which is C, the acceleration of light, occurs at 4225.35-mps distance; which is acquired by adding 300,000-km/sec by 71-km/sec/megaparsec. The admeasurement of our cosmos and what we in fact see are authentic by the two velocities, 71-km/sec/mps and 300,000-km/sec.

Spatial amplification has, for all advice and altitude purposes, placed every eyewitness at the centermost of their own universe. About all that we see aloft our bounded accumulation of galaxies is abandonment our universe. Searching aback does not necessarily beggarly seeing anywhere abreast a beginning.

Though the acceleration of amplification continues to access after an end, it becomes extraneous to us aloft 4225.35-mps, because we accept no way of measuring, witnessing, nor communicating with annihilation that is abbreviating from us at a acceleration greater than the acceleration of light. So 3.26157-million ablaze years per mps, assorted by, 4225.35-mps, gives a ambit of 13.78-billion ablaze years, which is the best ambit of our appreciable cosmos for a Hubble amplification acceleration of 71-km/sec/mps. This does not beggarly that the Cosmos is alone 13.78-billion years old.

Although searching aback in time is the a lot of accepted way of cerebration about abroad galaxies, it is aswell accurate to say we are alone searching abroad from our position on Apple as observers; and alone barometer spatial amplification about to Apple and a recession ambit of 13.78-billion ablaze years, irrespective of any beginning. It is absolutely a accompaniment that the estimated age of the cosmos is 13.8-billion years and the estimated ambit that we may attending aback is aswell 13.8-billion ablaze years.

The time to bifold the amplification ambit amid any two angelic points, not burdened by gravity, is abased on the accustomed amplification velocity. Consider the amplification of bulk at 1-mps traveling to 2-mps with a acceleration change of 71-km/sec, about to Earth. The amplification acceleration of 71-km/sec at 1mps accretion to 142-km/sec at 2-mps gives an boilerplate acceleration of 106.5-km/sec over a ambit of 3,261,570-light years. Back acceleration is alteration with ambit in spatial expansion, and not time, we can assumption that the physics of this abnormality requires some definition. In accepted physics:

A = V / T = dv / dt (velocity changes with time)

In spatial expansion:

A = V / X = dv / dx (velocity changes with distance.)

So, dv / dx = (km/sec) / km = sec-1 (which is the Hubble Parameter.)

(71 km/sec/mps) / (3.0857×10^19 km/mps) = 2.301×10^-18 /sec

The Hubble Connected will accord us the acceleration of any displacement, in km/sec; artlessly by adding this connected by the ambit in kilometers of any called displacement. This connected bulk is artlessly the change in amplification acceleration per kilometer due to spatial expansion. The Hubble Connected requires that ambit be chip with acceleration to access time of amplification amid two points. For example, acceleration the ambit from 1-mps with V=71-km/sec, to 2-mps with V=142-km/sec; in one iteration: Vaverage = ( Vf + Vi ) / 2

T = Xkm / ( Vave km/sec x Tsec/year ) = Tyears

T = 1-mps in km / (106.5 km/sec x 31,536,000 sec/year) = 9.188×10^9 years.

In two iterations; 1-mps (V=71km/sec) to 1.5-mps (V=106.5km/sec) added

1.5-mps (V=106.5km/sec) to 2-mps (V=142km/sec)

T1 =.5-mps in km / (88.75km/sec x 31,536,000 sec/yr) = 5.513×10^9 yrs.

T2 =.5-mps in km / (124.25 km/sec x 31,536,000 sec/yr) = 3.938×10^9 yrs.

T = T1 + T2 = 5.513×10^9 yrs + 3.938×10^9 yrs = 9.45×10^9 years.

Dividing the ambit from 1-mps to 2-mps into abate and abate increments yields a attached timespan of T = 9.55245×10^9 years to bifold that ambit via expansion; and the acceleration of added angelic distances such as, 20 to 40-mps, 100 to 200-mps, 2112.5 to 4225-mps, 4225 to 8450-mps, all annual to 9.55×10^9 years. The absolute adding of 9.55×10^9 years is 3.97% best than the antecedent adding of 9.188×10^9 years. The boilerplate amplification acceleration over any ambit is bargain by the abnormal attributes of this spatial amplification acceleration accretion alone as a aftereffect of added distance. Having beneath amplitude created in the aboriginal bisected of any distances chosen, than the added half, the Hubble amplification acceleration of 71-km/sec/mps, boilerplate velocities are bargain by 3.97% in adjustment to annual the absolute amplification time amid any two angelic points.

Although the Hubble amplification acceleration may not be absolutely beeline (constant over time), the ethics and calculations fabricated actuality will accept a beeline expansion. So if the amplification acceleration is C, at 13.78-billion ablaze years distance, it is.5C at 6.89-billion ablaze years ambit (half of the ambit of the appreciable Universe, or 2112.5-megaparsecs; 2112.5-mps x 71-km/sec/mps= 150,000-km/sec, or.5C). I accept called to use this.5C amplification acceleration ambit in a bulk of my calculations because it is an appreciable ambit at which we can admeasurement and verify the red-shifts of bulk and the amplification of space. The Hubble amplification acceleration of 71-km/sec/mps allows us to annual that every 9.55-billion years, the amplification of the Cosmos about to Earth, doubles for all credibility aloft the gravitational aftereffect of the bounded accumulation of galaxies. The key ambit and amplification velocity, 6.89-billion ablaze years and.5C, will acquiesce me to advance a timeline of amplification until alone our bounded array of galaxies is larboard in the arresting Universe.

If the aboriginal assumption in our timeline is a.5C acceleration increase, for bulk amid today at 6.89-billion ablaze years distance, accretion to 13.78-billion ablaze years ambit in 9.55-billion years; the added assumption is that for a apple of ambit R, a added concentric apple of ambit R/2 (one-half R) contains 1/8 of the aggregate of the apple of ambit R. So in our present Cosmos with a ambit of 13.78-billion ablaze years, a apple of ambit 6.89-billion ablaze years (one-half 13.78) represents 12.5% (1/8) of all bulk we appraisal to exist. Such that 87.5% of all bulk is anon abbreviating at.5C or greater acceleration and will access its amplification acceleration to C or greater in the next 9.55-billion years; causing it to abandon from altitude and interaction. Also, in the next 9.55-billion years the absolute bulk in the abate apple of 6.89-billion ablaze year ambit will aggrandize to ample our arresting Cosmos of 13.78-billion ablaze year radius, while abbreviating its body by 7/8ths. In a added 9.55-billion years addition 87.5% of the absolute 12.5% of bulk will disappear. By the time our Cosmos increases its estimated age to 32.88-billion years, alone 1.56% of what we currently see will still abide in our arresting universe; 98.44% will abandon in the next 19.1-billion years, carefully due to the Hubble amplification velocity; while the absolute 1.56% will accept broadcast to ample a Cosmos of 13.78-billion ablaze years ambit and be 1/64 as close as it is today. If we artlessly annual the dematerialization of 87.5% of our Cosmos every 9.55-billion years of added age, we will acquisition that at:

42.43 Billion Years only.195% charcoal arresting

51.98 Billion Years only.024% charcoal arresting

61.54 Billion Years only.003% charcoal arresting

71.09 Billion Years only.00038% charcoal arresting

80.64 Billion Years only.000048% charcoal arresting

90.19 Billion Years only.000006% charcoal arresting

99.74 Billion Years only.0000007% charcoal arresting

109.30 Billion Years only.00000009% charcoal arresting

118.85 Billion Years only.00000001% charcoal arresting

128.40 Billion Years only.0000000014% charcoal arresting

137.95 Billion Years only.00000000018% charcoal arresting

(Approximately 36 galaxies out of 200-billion)

This algebraic does not absorb the angle that the Hubble Amplification Acceleration may be accretion in an accelerating expansion. In either case, the angle that it will yield trillions of years for the galaxies to abate aloft our appearance is wrong.

The amplitude amid 1-megaparsec from us today will aggrandize to 4225-mps, in about 140-billion years, if we avoid force in our bounded Virgo Supercluster. The bounded force will addled the time for associates of this supercluster to either aggrandize aloft the arresting border or amalgamate to anatomy one absolute ample galaxy.

Even admitting force has airtight galaxies into clusters, superclusters and filaments, the boilerplate accumulation body of bulk per assemblage aggregate would acquiesce us to accomplish bigger calculations apropos the acceleration of amplification and age of the universe. Obviously as the cosmos expands the body decreases, about it is the bulk at which body is abbreviating that is shocking. Force and the adjacency of galaxies to anniversary added abode age banned on both galaxy formation, their break by spatial expansion, and the age of our universe.

The antecedent few paragraphs looked at galaxy numbers and accumulation body crumbling in the approaching about to a citizenry of 200-billion galaxies. Back our appreciable cosmos is affected to be 13.8-billion years old, we can appraisal that 9.55 billion years ago, our appreciable cosmos may accept had eight times the bulk of galaxies in it, as today, (approximately 1.6-trillion), and it may accept been 8-times added close than today. 1.4-trillion galaxies may accept receded aloft our appearance in the endure 9.55-billion years; while the accumulation body of galaxies abreast us would accept alone to 12.5% of the accumulation body of galaxies 9.55-billion years ago. Studies of abysmal amplitude regions are absolute ample numbers of galaxies at acute distances. If galaxy accumulation body at acute distances is the aforementioned or greater than galaxy accumulation body nearby, again the accident of appreciable galaxies affected aloft is true. However, for spatial amplification to be true, we should admeasurement college accumulation densities of galaxies with greater distance. This is one of three testable hypotheses offered in this cardboard to analysis the authority of spatial expansion. The body I accredit to is absolute mass, not accurately galaxy quantities. If it takes the accumulation of 100-dwarf galaxies to according the accumulation of a galaxy like the Milky Way today, again seeing 100-times the bulk of galaxies at 10-billion ablaze years distance, and they getting predominantly dwarf galaxies, does not announce added body of accumulation in the past. This would be ambiguous for spatial expansion.

Galaxies are aswell ambidextrous with accretion amplitude aural them, possibly abstraction them forth the even of their axial atramentous hole’s spin. Our galaxy at 50,000-light year ambit is ambidextrous with 1.1-km of new amplitude every added amid the centermost and the rim, in all directions. If our galaxy has been about for 13-billion years, galactic force has had to accord with 47,000-light years of amplification at its present rim ambit of 50,000-light years. A cogent bulk of amplification over a reasonable time-span. Perhaps spatial amplification can annual for some of the furnishings attributed to aphotic bulk and aphotic action with annual to galaxy formation, geometry, and assorted centralized motions.

The galactic ambit of 50,000 lt yrs, times the Hubble Parameter, yields,.4730×10^18km x 2.301×10^-18 /sec

Which = 1.088 km/sec; or 1.088 km of new amplitude every added amid our galactic centermost and its rim, at all points.

13 billion years of amplification at = 4.0997×10^17 sec x 1.088 km/sec =

4.46×10^17km. Which disconnected by the 9.461×10^12km/lt yr = 47,147 lt ys.

The connected amplification of amplitude for all advertence frames presents some absorbing facts about what we are measuring, what we are seeing, and what is in fact occurring.

If a spaceship larboard a galaxy amid 6.89-billion ablaze years away,2112.5-mps from us today, area the galaxy is abbreviating from us at.5C, and the spaceship is traveling against us at 150,000-km/sec, also.5C, that address would not accretion any ambit on us. They would be abrogation their galaxy, but alone traveling in bike with us and we would both access our acceleration about to their galaxy by 71-km/sec/mps. In 9.55- billion years we abate from 2112.5-mps to 4225-mps from that galaxy and we would again be abbreviating at 300,000-km/sec, acceleration C, about to that galaxy. While the spaceship has catholic to 2112.5-mps abroad from its home galaxy, area its action expended acceleration of.5C, added its spatial amplification acceleration of.5C, at 2112.5-mps, has it aswell affective abroad from its home galaxy at acceleration C. So we are still travelling in bike with that spaceship and we accept both absent any accessible affiliation with the spaceship’s home galaxy.

On the added hand, if a supernova occurred in a galaxy 6.89-billion ablaze years away, we would aswell be abbreviating from that ablaze at.5C, (150,000-km/sec). As apple is agitated 2112.5 mps by spatial expansion, the supernova ablaze is aided by a allocation of that spatial amplification occurring amid apple and that galaxy is accident abaft the supernova light, accretion its acceleration about to its galaxy against earth. Because of spatial amplification this ablaze has an able acceleration of (C+.5C) over its 4225 mps adventure to earth, which gives a biking time of 9.55 billion years; the aforementioned as apple abbreviating from 2112.5 mps to 4225 mps from the galaxy. As the supernova ablaze reduces the ambit amid us it aswell reduces the allocation all-important to affected spatial expansion, so that it eventually arrives at our area at acceleration C, as we would expect. Admitting it took 9.55-billion years for that supernova ablaze to ability us; the advice in that ablaze is that of a supernova that occurred 6.89-billion ablaze years ambit from Earth. Back our recession acceleration about to that galaxy has added from.5C to acceleration C, in that 9.55-billion years, we may alone beam and almanac its history for 9.55-billion years; but that history takes best and best to ability us.

Spatial Amplification slows angelic motion. If a galaxy is amid 1.38-billion ablaze years away, it is abbreviating at 30,000-km/sec, 10% of the acceleration of light. In 10 abnormal such a galaxy has receded 300,000-km added abroad (1-second of ablaze biking time); so the comings and goings and affairs central this galaxy that action in 10-units of time (seconds, days, years) crave 11-units of time to play out through our telescopes and instruments. The timespan for things to action is diffuse 10% at.1C; and so a simple accord plays out; angelic motions apathetic by the aforementioned allotment of time that is the allotment of the acceleration of ablaze that spatial amplification is affected for such motions. For example, if the boilerplate galaxy abreast us rotates with a aeon of 200 to 250-million years, and Type-1A Supernovas flash with a specific ablaze ambit over a 6-week period, again the boilerplate galaxy at 6.89 billion ablaze years ambit (receding at.5C) would appearance galactic action slowed by 50%; so the boilerplate galaxy at that ambit would circle in 300 to 375-million years and Type-1A Supernovas ablaze ambit would endure for 9-weeks. Such addition of contest are appreciable and measureable. If we admeasurement abroad galactic circling motion and abroad Type-1A Supernovas accuracy to be addition with distance, again spatial amplification is accurate over added theories; if we do not admeasurement any addition of such motions and accuracy with distance, again spatial amplification is disproved and some added abnormality is bare to explain red-shifts of ablaze accretion with distance. These are testable hypotheses.

Though the slowing of action at ambit occurs about to the ambit the galaxy was from the apple if such action took place; the time and ambit abstinent by red-shifts does not added amplify such activity. So a galaxy amid 6.89-billion ablaze years from earth, abbreviating at.5C, if a Type-1A Supernova occurs would crave 9.55-billion years for that ablaze to ability earth. That ablaze would admeasurement 9.55-billion ablaze years abroad and it would be 9.55-billion years old, but the advice in that ablaze would display the addition associated with its recession acceleration if it started out,.5C. So a galaxy, abstinent to be 9.55-billion ablaze years abroad today, should be abstinent to be alternating in 300 to 375-million years, and Type-1A Supernova accuracy should yield 9-weeks to chase its accustomed ambit (50% longer).

I am including a annual of galactic circling times at assorted distances, about to adjacent galaxies, as able-bodied as accuracy periods of Type-1A Supernovas, that can be absolute with accustomed and approaching data.

An amplification acceleration of.1C occurs at 1.378 bly distance; and lengthens galaxy circling by 20-25 actor years; and adds 4 canicule to the 42 day ablaze ambit of Type-1A Supernovas.

An amplification acceleration of.2C occurs at 2.76 bly distance; and lengthens galaxy circling by 40-50 actor years; and adds 8 canicule to the 42 day ablaze ambit of Type-1A Supernovas.

An amplification acceleration of.3C occurs at 4.13 bly distance; and lengthens galaxy circling by 60-75 actor years; and adds 12.6 canicule to the 42 day ablaze ambit of Type-1A Supernovas.

An amplification acceleration of.4C occurs at 5.51 bly distance; and lengthens galaxy circling by 80-100 actor years; and adds 16.8 canicule to the 42 day ablaze ambit of Type-1A Supernovas.

An amplification acceleration of.5C occurs at 6.89 bly distance; and lengthens galaxy circling by 100-125 actor years; and adds 21 canicule to the 42 day ablaze ambit of Type-1A Supernovas.

Although we cannot, at this time, see any galaxies at 13.78-billion ablaze years distant, such a galaxy would reflect action that occurred if such a galaxy was just beneath 9-billion ablaze years from our galaxy; but requires 13.78-billion years to ability us. So 9-billion ablaze years is the absolute ambit of absolute galactic action that we may observe; for a cosmos that is alone 13.8 billion years old. The acceleration of spatial amplification at 9-billion ablaze years is 65% of C, 196,000-km/sec; and history at this ambit is astern by 65% also. I accept that the a lot of abroad galaxy that has been abstinent is amid about 11-billion ablaze year from us, which represents ablaze branch against us if that galaxy was about 7.7-billion ablaze years from our galaxy. So, for example, if we were searching for ablaze from galaxies amid 10.3 billion ablaze years abroad from us today, abbreviating with an amplification acceleration of.75C, because of spatial amplification we would accept to delay until 17.2 billion years had passed, to see the activities of galaxies occurring at that ambit today.

The abstraction that galaxies will apathetic the amplification via force needs to be re-calculated to annual for the dematerialization of galaxies that are affective abroad from us at velocities greater than C. If 87.5% of all ablaze and aphotic bulk will abandon in 9.55-billion years, again the force associated with those galaxies will aswell cease; as able-bodied as the absolute 12.5% of galaxies will aggrandize and abstracted over all-inclusive distances to ample the aforementioned aggregate as our present universe.

We cannot attending aback to the beginning, and we cannot actuate the age of the Cosmos artlessly by extrapolations from observations of red shifts; back the Cosmos is abbreviating aloft our appearance at 9-Billion Ablaze Years distance; a bulk that will in fact get abate if the bulk of amplification increases. We can however, annual the accumulation body of galaxies at altered times in the accomplished and analyze that with the accumulation body of galaxies abreast us today to annual astern in time accretion body of bulk until we access at the age of our Universe.

© February 2017 by Craig D. Hanks